Tier 2

A conceptual map of three overlapping circles labeled Systems, Data and Practices inside a larger circle labeled Outcomes. On the outside circle are four arrows labeled Cultural Equity, Cultural Validity, Cultural Relevance and Cultural Knowledge.
Integrated Elements of PBIS – Data, Systems and Practices Leading to Outcomes

 

Secondary Prevention

The aim of Tier 2 is to prevent current behavior problems from becoming chronic or worse.

Tier 2 is designed to add targeted interventions to students who are not responding to the implementation of Tier 1 interventions, approximately 10 percent to 15 percent of the total school population. In addition to Tier 1 interventions, Tier 2 supports are “layered” on to provide targeted small group interventions that are matched to the function of the student’s behavior.

Systems

Development of a Tier 2 team

Tier 2 prevention is most effective when approached as a collaborative process. Support teams, including the student’s family, educators, and/or other direct service providers, should be involved in conducting assessments and designing interventions. It is also helpful to include professionals who have expertise in behavior to ensure the interventions chosen match the function of the student’s behavior.

In general, support teams should include people who know the student best, have a vested interest in positive outcomes, represent the range of environments in which the student participates, and have access to resources needed for support.

A Tier 2 Team selects features of the process (e.g., types of programs or interventions, data collection tools used, information gathered, and degree of monitoring) to provide more focused behavior support to students with behavior needs that do not require intensive, individualized plans.

Data

Use data to make decisions

Decisions to implement Tier 2 interventions are grounded in records of student behavior compiled by classroom teachers or other professionals. The decision to use Tier 2 supports is typically made by the school’s planning team and behavior support team. Movement of students in and out of Tier 2 supports are made by the regular review of data collected for progress monitoring.

Monitor student progress to inform interventions

Effective Tier 2 interventions produce measurable changes in behavior and improvements in a student’s quality of life (e.g., participation in integrated activities, improved social relationships, independence and self-sufficiency).

Direct observations and frequent monitoring of progress are widely-used methods for evaluating these outcomes, and determining adjustments that might be warranted when progress does not occur within a reasonable time frame. Checks for fidelity of implementation, to determine if the intervention is being delivered as intended, are also critical.

Practices

Addressing the needs of individuals within group environments

Individual systems and other levels of positive behavior support are complementary in that well-structured group applications (e.g., classroom management systems) provide a foundation for effective individualized support.

Often, the need for individual systems is minimized by these broader systems; however, some students require a greater degree of individualization and support. It may be necessary to adapt features of group applications (e.g., physical arrangement, routines, types of rewards) to meet the needs of individual students within certain settings.

School poster for Class Rewards for Good to Grreat PBIS porgram. The poster explains how students can earn Tiger Tokens by meeting the target for reading practice, wearing uniforms, attending class, walking properly in the halls and following the Teamwork Behavioral Matrix. The reinforcers for earning different levels of tokens is listed in a table.
This poster explains how students can earn Tiger Tokens by following the Teamwork Behavioral Matrix.

Key features of Tier 2 interventions

1. Continuous availability

2. Rapid access to additional support (within 72 hours)

3. Low level of additional effort required of teachers

4. Consistent with school-wide expectations

5. Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school

6. Flexible intervention based on assessment

7. Function-based thinking

8. Adequate resources (admin, team), weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week

9. Student engagement in the process

10. Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making

Tier 2 Interventions

Check In/Check Out (CICO)

Social Skills Group

Academic Supports